Constrained user interface examples

Designing a complex user interface on Android with a nested view hierarchy used to be common. But with the introduction of ConstraintLayoutthis has changed a lot. ConstraintLayout reduces a lot of the challenges of building complex layoutsas you can now design them using the GUI of Layout Editor by just dragging UI elements into a visual design editor instead of writing layout XML by hand.

It uses a flat view hierarchy and also provides some performance benefits. If you need more information on getting started and developing an application with Jetpack Compose, check out this article by a Senior Mobile Engineer Salih. You must set at least two constraintsone horizontal and one vertical constraint, to position a view element properly on the screen.

If you do not have Autoconnection turned on, any view that you drop in the Layout Editor stays where you leave it without any constraints.

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However, when you run an app with a view element without any constraints, it is by default rendered to the position [0,0] the top-left corner of the device screen. Adaptable constraint: A constraint that defines a relationship in relative and weighted terms. Absolute positioning: A numerical positioning, such as the position in x, y coordinates. Relative positioning: Views are positioned by specifying relationships with other views.

A chain is a group of views that are linked to each other with bi-directional position constraints. The views within a chain can be distributed either vertically or horizontally. Spread: Elements are evenly distributed along the mentioned axis. This the default style for chains. Spread inside: Elements are spread to use the available space with the head and tail attached to the parent.

Weighted: Elements are resized to use all the available space according to specified weights with the head and tail glued to the parent. This can be achieved when the chain is set to either spread or spread inside. You can fill the remaining space by setting one or more views to match constraint 0dp. Packed with bias: Elements are packed to use minimum space and are moved on their axis depending on bias.

You can adjust this bias by using the slider present in the Attributes panel under the Layout tab. In ConstraintLayout, you can set the size of a view by defining an aspect ratio. To use ratio, set at least one of the view dimensions i. Click on it to enable ratio for that selected view.

Now, you can define any aspect ratio in the format width:height.

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By default, it is set to If you have both the width and height set to match constraintthen the ratio will define both of them with respect to the parent. In this case, you get some more options. For example, if you press the triangle a second time, it will set the ratio with respect to the height of the parent. Pressing the triangle a third time will set the ratio with respect to the width of the parent.

A Guideline is a virtual helper object that allows you to create horizontal and vertical guidelines, which are positioned relative to the ConstraintLayout container. You can then constrain other view elements relative to your specified guideline. A guideline can be created by right-clicking on the Design editor.

You can also do this by clicking the Guidelines icon in the toolbar.Generated clocks are driven inside the design by special cells called Clock Modifying Blocks for example, an MMCMor by some user logic.

Vivado automatically creates these clocks, provided the associated master clock has already been defined. It is possible to force the name of the generated clock that is automatically created by the tool. An auto-generated clock is not created if a user-defined clock primary or generated is also defined on the same netlist object, that is, on the same definition point net or pin.

Vivado gives the following warning message when an existing primary or generated clock prevents auto-generated clock propagation:. XDC constraint:. See Xilinx Answer and Xilinx Answer for common issues of renaming auto-derived clocks. For example, for a clock divider logic that consists of LUTs and FFs, Vivado is not aware of the period relationship between the source clock and the divided clock. This type of clock divider is not recommended in an FGPA.

Specify the master source using the -source option. This indicates a pin or port in the design through which the master clock propagates. It is common to use the master clock source point or the input clock pin of a generated clock source cell.

The primary clock drives a register divider to create a divide-by-2 clock at the register output. Option 1: master clock source is the primary clock source point with a 'divide by' value of the circuit. Option 2: master clock source is the REGA clock pin with a 'divide by' value of the circuit. In the Source Synchronous application, the clock is regenerated in the source device and forwarded to the destination device along with data.

In the following example, the ODDR instance in the source device is used to generate the forwarding clock for the Source Synchronous interface. When two or more clocks drive into a multiplexer or more generally a combinatorial cellthey all propagate through and become overlapped on the fanout of the cell. For this reason, you must review the CDC paths and add new constraints to exclude false paths due to overlapping.

In some scenarios, user-defined generated clocks need to be created for the multiplexed clock in order to correctly constrain the CDC paths.

Instead, it must be applied to the portion of the clocks in the fanout of the multiplexer, which requires additional clock definitions. In this case, two generated clocks are created at the Multiplexer output pin and paths crossing the generated clock domains are ignored.

constrained user interface examples

You are using a deprecated Browser. Internet Explorer is no longer supported by Xilinx. AR Update me on changes via Email Unsubscribe. Description Solution. Clock Period Waveform Attributes Sources clkin Was this Answer Record helpful? Yes No. People Also Viewed.

Feedback Close. Vivado Design Suite.Whenever possible, use Interface Builder to set your constraints. Interface Builder provides a wide range of tools to visualize, edit, manage, and debug your constraints.

constrained user interface examples

By analyzing your constraints, it also reveals many common errors at design time, letting you find and fix problems before your app even runs. Interface Builder can manage an ever-growing number of tasks. You can build almost any type of constraint directly in Interface Builder see Working with Constraints in Interface Builder.

You can also specify size-class-specific constraints see Debugging Auto Layoutand with new tools like stack views, you can even dynamically add or remove views at runtime see Dynamic Stack View. However, some dynamic changes to your view hierarchy can still be managed only in code. You have three choices when it comes to programmatically creating constraints: You can use layout anchors, you can use the NSLayoutConstraint class, or you can use the Visual Format Language.

The NSLayoutAnchor class provides a fluent interface for creating constraints. To use this API, access the anchor properties on the items you want to constrain.

Views, on the other hand, expose anchors for their edges, centers, size, and baselines. Layout anchors let you create constraints in an easy-to-read, compact format. They expose a number of methods for creating different types of constraints, as shown in Listing As described in Anatomy of a Constrainta constraint is simply a linear equation. The layout anchors have several different methods for creating constraints.

Each method includes parameters only for the elements of the equation that affect the results. So in the following line of code:. The layout anchors also provides additional type safety. The NSLayoutAnchor class has a number of subclasses that add type information and subclass-specific methods for creating constraints.

This helps prevent the accidental creation of invalid constraints. For example, you can constrain horizontal anchors leadingAnchor or trailingAnchor only with other horizontal anchors. Similarly, you can provide multipliers only for size constraints.

The Role of Constraints in Design Innovation

This method explicitly converts the constraint equation into code. Each parameter corresponds to a part of the equation see The constraint equation. The end result is a considerable amount of boilerplate code, which is usually harder to read.

For example, the code in Listing code is functionally identical to the code in Listing Unlike the layout anchor API, the convenience method does not highlight the important features of a particular constraint. As a result, it is easier to miss important details when scanning over the code. Additionally, the compiler does not perform any static analysis of the constraint. You can freely create invalid constraints. These constraints then throw an exception at runtime.They provide smarter ways to use simple things and simpler ways to use smart things.

Interfaces release the potential of complex systems and technologies to the users who need them. And every once in a while, they change everything.

We believe user interfaces have been pivotal to some of the world's most important innovations. And since the line between an "interface" and an "invention" can be quite fuzzy, we thought we'd explore that line — and take a tour of how interfaces have changed the world. At Xerox, we have a long list of our own handy interfaces: The green-means-go button on your copier.

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum. Before the mouse, if you wanted to talk to a computer, you had to enter commands through a keyboard. All that changed inwhen engineer and inventor Douglas Engelbart of SRI International pieced together a wooden shell, a circuit board, a couple of metal wheels and some cord to make interacting with a computer as simple as a point and a click. Humans can perceive acceleration and deceleration.

What we can't perceive is actual speed — how fast we're going. Of course, before the automobile, this didn't matter. But as automobiles got faster, it became clear that until we knew how fast we were going, we wouldn't be able to regulate how fast we should be going.

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Breakthroughs in text-to-speech synthesis have enabled people with speech and reading disabilities to interact naturally with the people around them. Imagine Stephen Hawking without his synthesizer. And as text-to-speech gets better and better, you'll get a whole new range of life-changing applications. Today we use virtual assistants such as Siri or Cortana to "Google the next exit" while we're driving or to tell our wrists to "call home.

But as natural language interfaces develop they'll be able to speed up complex processes that involve a lot of typing — from medicine to finance.

Spark Museum of Electrical Invention www.

35 Interface Innovations that Rocked Our World

To use a rotary dial phone today you'd have to find a particularly hipster-friendly boutique hotel. But back inthe dial changed everything. Until then, using a phone required you to turn a hand crank to send a spark to alert an operator to get connected.

The dial was the first automated, user-controlled way to make a call. Look at an iPhone and consider how far we've come. All rights reserved. Several decades after the rotary dial, Steve Jobs announced the arrival of another dial that would change the course of a whole market. Not only did the iPod give everyone a "thousand songs in their pockets," it also gave us a new way to interact with devices. The click wheel combined sharply defined functionality with tactile simplicity in a way that reinvigorated interest in portable music players.

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It may have been superseded already, but in it's time, it was the essence of cool. The first typewriters had one massive problem — if you typed two neighboring letters in rapid succession they'd jam up.

So in the s, a newspaper editor from Milwaukee noted the most commonly used letters and created a layout that kept those letters apart. The smaller the phone, the harder it is to type.The restrictions that define allowable configurations are called constraints. Constraints can take several forms:.

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Attribute definitions, cardinality, interface design, and configuration rules are the methods you use to create the configuration constraints that enforce business rules and logic. You test these constraints by going to validation mode. In validation mode, you configure the product as if you were the end user. This lets you verify that the user interface works correctly and that all constraints are functioning properly.

Attributes define the options for an individual component. For example, a component has the attribute Color. The Color attribute defines the set of colors that a user can choose for the component.

Attributes are defined at the class level in the class system and are inherited by all products assigned to the class. This means you can define and manage attributes for large groups of products and components from a single location.

Designing complex UI using Android ConstraintLayout

You do not have to define these options for each product or component individually. You add components to a customizable product by defining relationships. A relationship can contain a single component, all or part of a product class, or a group of products from several classes.

When you define a relationship, you can specify a minimum, maximum, and default cardinality. The cardinality defines whether or not the user is required to select items and also how many items they can select. Cardinality is defined at the relationship level and applies to the relationship as a whole. It constrains the quantity of items you can select from a relationship. If the relationship contains one item, cardinality constrains the selection of that item. If the relationship contains a group of items, cardinality applies to selection of these items in any combination.

Upgrade users.You can help by splitting this big page into smaller ones. Please make sure to follow the naming policy. Dividing books into smaller sections can provide more focus and allow each one to do one thing well, which benefits everyone.

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Access controls are security features that control how users and systems communicate and interact with other systems and resources. A subject is an active entity that requests access to a resource or the data within a resource.

A resource is an entity that contains the information. Access controls give organization the ability to control, restrict, monitor, and protect resource availability, integrity and confidentiality. Identification describes a method of ensuring that a subject is the entity it claims to be.

Authentication is the method of proving the subjects identity. Authorization is the method of controlling the access of objects by the subject. Note: There must be a three step process of Identification, Authentication and Authorization in order for a subject to access an object.

Note: For a strong authentication to be in process, it must include two out of the three authentication factors- also referred to as two factor authentication. The access controls can be classified into three layers or categories, each category having different access control mechanisms that can be carried out manually or automatically. For a security breach to occur, it would require collusion, which means that more than one person would need to commit fraud, and their efforts would need to be concerted.

The use of separation of duties drastically reduces the probability of security breaches and fraud. Physical controls support and work with administrative and technical logical controls to supply the right degree of access control. They protect the integrity and availability of resources by limiting the number of subjects that can access them and protect the confidentiality of resources by preventing disclosure to unauthorized subjects. Each of the access control categories — administrative, physical and technical work at different levels, each at a different level of granularity and perform different functionalities based on the type.

Unfortunately, there are no effective ways to prevent being the victim of a DoS or DDoS attack, but there are steps you can take to reduce the likelihood that an attacker will use your computer to attack other computers:. To properly protect an environment against dictionary and other password attacks, the following practices should be followed:. For phone brute force attacks, auditing and monitoring of this type of activity should be in place to uncover patterns that could indicate a wardialing attack:.

Different access control technologies are available to support the different access control models. Access Control Monitoring is a method of keeping track of who attempts to access specific network resources. Intrusion detection is the process of detecting an unauthorized use of, or attack upon, a computer, network, or a telecommunication infrastructure. IDS are designed to aid in mitigating the damage that can be caused by hacking, or breaking into sensitive computer and network systems.

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The traditional IDS only detects that something bad may be taking place and sends an alert. The goal of an IPS is to detect this activity and not allow the traffic to gain access to the target in the first place. Honey Pots. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world.One of the most important tools that have helped the websites become more and more attractive and interactive, is the user interface design.

A design is created taking into view their need, the experience of the users, keeping in mind the user-centricity and usability, and all the other factors that are pertinent in enhancing the interface of the users.

Read this article to know about some of the best user interface design examples. Some user interface designs are readily available with boxes as well as arrows along with a prime source that offers all types of relevant information on interaction designits usability, and various other related factors. A few more kinds of designs are also available that have various web applications. The design further subdivides the User Science topic into three different categories called Accessibility, Usability and Information Architecture.

A few designs are created so as to provide the users share tips on how to use white space while improving the User Interface and using the Photoshop color profiles for creating web images. There are designs which are specifically set for the airlines companies and those doing related business.

Some of these designs use a collection of links about topics on designs of User Interface and the way they are related to web. A few designs on the other hand, give emphasis on usability. These have an Alert box section that helps in the usability of the users. Another type of design puts emphasis on the excellent design of interaction and visual design that is used in the real world.

There are plenty of ways to utilize, navigate, and find your desired content on the site.

constrained user interface examples

This includes Tag pages that feature popular keywords used in entries within the showcase that are split up into three categories — keyword, product, and company. With Postcards you can create and edit email templates online without any coding skills!

Includes more than components to help you create custom emails templates faster than ever before. You will also come across a design that is more applicable in dealing with the categories like accessibility, usability, as well as the experience of the user.

Another beautiful design helps the users to explore plenty of design patterns of user experience like date pickers and 2-panel selectors. This particular application needs Silverlight plugin and can be viewed using the Internet Explorer it works properly in Firefox as well as Safari though for the best results.

Another type of user interface design is available with a number of patterns of design that involve various site tasks like navigation around a particular site, searching a particular site, and certain very basic interactions like slideshows and other tools that establish a bondage with the users.

A few other types of designs also concentrate on breadcrumbs other than slideshows. Another tool, Pattern Tap helps the users in creating their sets, and they can choose from over 7, user sets. The user interface is based on a neutral gray that establishes casual and formal atmosphere. It also skillfully balances all the splashes of bright colors and graphics. The clean monochrome background and plenty of white space set the stage for information quite effectively, presenting it in a pleasant manner.

Everything is neat and carefully organized. The project is supposed to deal with a bulk of data so that it is not surprising that tables, proper formatting and calm basic color scheme are three fundamental bricks that underlie the design.

Bookmark-inspired navigation on the left is a nice touch that instantly catches the eye. Although the layout is nothing but conventional grid, however, it is very comfortable to surf through. With Startup App and Slides App you can build unlimited websites using the online website editor which includes ready-made designed and coded elements, templates and themes. The website is planned down to the last detail.

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